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Testing the Digital Ocean $5 Cloud Servers with an MMORPG


I've been working on an space-based MMORPG for a while now and I finally reached a point where the server was largely complete and ready for some load testing. I had done quite a bit of testing on my quad-core Xeon development system with great results. Renting a dedicated box like that one, and with a decent Internet connection would not be cheap, however.

I was curious about Digital Ocean's offerings so I decided to take a couple of their smallest virtual machines for a test run. These 5 dollar/month cloud servers have 512MB of memory, a single virtual CPU, and 20 gigabytes of SSD disk storage. I created the first one, Maelstrom, in one of their New York data centers and the second one, Paradise, in their San Fransico facility. As claimed, each server took just under 60 seconds to deploy.

I made a few customizations to the bare-bones CentOS 6.5 64-bit image that I had selected for both machines. I then ran my personal benchmark package on both. On my 256 megabyte benchmark that emulates a relational database instance, I got about 25% of the performance of one of my Ivy Bridge Xeon cores. This benchmark stresses memory bandwidth, takes advantage of the full range of caches, as well as loading the CPU with integer-only operations.

I consider a fourth of an Ivy Bridge core an excellent result for a $5(US) server! I repeated the tests over the following days and got consistent results varying within a 10 percent range. One thing of note; the SF server consistently performed about 10% faster than the NY server.

Next, I loaded up a million-sector instance of my MMORPG server engine on the NY server and a bundle of testing scripts on the SF machine. The test suite, which emulates 712 concurrent players requires 1424 processes to do that. In retrospect, it wasn't too surprising that I crashed the SF machine as the testing scripts created an urgent demand for far more than 512 MB of memory! My mistake. I suspected that I wasn't going to be able to fully stress the game engine with far fewer emulated players.

But, always the optimist, I set up a gigabyte of swap space on Paradise and tried again. This time the tests ran just fine -- and the SSD-based swap space performed beautifully.

I got an average of 2500 game transactions per second over the duration of the test -- which should be more than enough for my target of 1000 concurrent players per realm. The SF machine used one half of the GB(!) of swap space while running the test scripts and hummed along happily at about 75% busy.

The NY server was fully stressed at about 98% CPU utilization and remained very responsive for the duration of the test.

I'm still running both systems three weeks later and have experienced no reboots or outages so far.

The New York server continues to run my text-based space MMORPG server back-end for game-play testing as the graphical front-end client is developed.
mail this link | permapage | score:9970 | -Ray, May 13, 2014

Nuvola Player: Enjoy all your Cloud music services from one interface


And with tight integration with the Linux desktop (multimedia keys, system tray, media player applets, dock menu, notifications and more), it provides a better user experience when compared to using the same Cloud music services from a Web browser. read more...
permapage | score:9693 | -finid, August 21, 2013

Linux file manager comparison review


Reviewing and rating six of the best Linux file managers...
The litmus test for any file manager, then, is its ability to manage large numbers of files efficiently, and this is one of the two main criteria for the applications in this roundup. Our other primary concern is advocacy. Could each file manager here help convince inexperienced Linux users that the OS can be either familiar and easy to use, or different in that it's much more flexible than what they've previously experienced?
mail this link | permapage | score:9520 | -Ray, April 20, 2011

Librenix T-Shirts and Coffee Mugs!


For today's example of my (semi)elite C programming skilz, I submit for your inspection the Librenix T-Shirts! Yes, I created the images on these shirts and coffee mugs entirely with C code. While the code isn't up to the standards *cough* of my open source Space Tyrant project, at least the output is colorful and not entirely textual!

click either image to see the T-Shirts, Coffee Mugs, etc.

(If you like the images but don't care for 'librenix' on your shirt, these same styles are available for all 50 US state names as well as with the signs of the zodiac here)

(and here are some modern prints)
mail this link | permapage | score:9484 | -Ray, June 6, 2010 (Updated: May 13, 2014)

VPS: Xen vs. OpenVZ


This is a short overview of the key differences between OpenVZ and Xen that you might consider when choosing a VPS. Note that this article is based on my opinions and that you must do your own research to determine which, if either, technology is best for you and your application.

First, some terminology. OpenVZ isn't fully virtualized and could be more properly referred to as a 'container', not a VPS. That shouldn't affect your choice. It's the technical differences that matter.

Cheap VPS offers are everywhere lately, it seems. However, upon closer inspection I saw that almost all of the low-priced offers were for OpenVZ. While both Xen and OpenVZ offer their advantages, I chose Xen. So, there's my first bias, right up front. :)

OpenVZ advantages:

  • Efficient (fast)
OpenVZ disadvantages:
  • Shared kernel (no custom kernel)
  • Shared memory with other users
  • Vendor can easily oversell, killing performance
Xen advantages:
  • Dedicated memory
  • fully virtualized (can run other kernels or even OS's)
  • vendor more limited in overselling
Xen disadvantages
  • Less efficient (more overhead due to a kernel-per-VPS)

You'll notice I left price out of the above comparison. In theory, there should be a small price advantage for OpenVZ. I don't know how big it should be but it pertains to two things: 1) Xen uses more memory due to each VPS having its own kernel, and 2) Xen uses more CPU, also due to the additional software layer required to virtualize the kernel.

In practice, however, the price gap appears larger than the above technical differences suggest it should be. I think the remainder of OpenVZ's price advantage is based on 1) the ability for a vendor to easily oversell OpenVZ, and 2) The price competition that results from some vendors overselling OpenVZ.

OpenVZ doesn't encapsulate its containers into a fixed amount of memory, so it runs processes in the host environment to monitor memory usage and kill processes as a container allocates more than its assigned amount.

As a result of this difference, loading down an OpenVZ container is problematic. To partially offset this disadvantage, most OpenVZ vendors offer 'burst' memory in addition to 'dedicated' memory. That is, the monitor process is set to allow the container to use more than its allocated memory -- for a short period of time. This messy situation results in a potentially unreliable environment as some of your processes may be arbitrarily killed -- at the busiest times.

Xen, on the other hand, allows the use of a swap space and excess memory allocation results in (hopefully) idle segments being rolled out to the swap area. While this is good for the memory-hungry VPS user, it can consume significant I/O capacity when memory is overallocated to the point of busy segments getting swapped out. This is bad for everyone sharing the underlying hardware.

I see Xen as clearly the superior technology. A Xen VPS feels and behaves more like a dedicated server. However, I still would have purchased OpenVZ at some price difference. After a bit of research, however, I located Xen VPS's at practically the same price as the cheapest OpenVZ containers. That made my decision easy.

With that said, keep in mind that a bad hosting vendor can ruin either technology through various means. Both technologies share the disk drives and I/O paths as well as the processor cores. Hardware can be poorly configured and managed in any case. A reputable vendor is probably the single most important consideration in choosing a virtual server.

Lastly, carefully check the 'allowed use' policy. Make sure your application is allowed on the server you intend to purchase. Note that due to their different characteristics, the allowed use policy may differ between OpenVZ and Xen for the same host. Also, it's good to understand the memory usage characteristics of your applications. If you know how much memory/swap they require on a physical system, it'll probably work with that same amount of memory/swap on Xen.

[I'll post a review shortly of my current VPS vendor and I will then add a link to that article here.]

mail this link | permapage | score:9481 | -Ray, June 13, 2011

Apple DIY Repair


I won't be buying any more Apple products. Here's why:

I'm generally capable of repairing my own equipment and can recognize when self-repair has been deliberately undermined. I recently had to replace a hard drive in an early generation white Intel iMac. Innocently, I believed the interior was accessible and serviceable in the manner of the externally identical white PowerPC iMacs.

No such luck. Not only do you have to remove the LCD to get to the hard drive, but you must also remove shielding around the LCD -- mostly by tearing it to bits. No doubt it is attached this way so that an authorized Apple technician will be able to confidently void your warranty if you've ever worked on the system yourself.

You'll also need a #10 torx magnetic screwdriver. And, no, #10 torx bits just won't do due to the narrow and deeply recessed screw holes. Also, since most torx screwdrivers aren't magnetic, you'll probably need to tape the screws to the screwdriver to reattach the LCD. Good thing there's a hardware store near you.

Oh, and don't forget to pick up some rubber cement to 'properly' reattach the hard drive temperature sensor while you're out looking for magnetic torx screwdrivers.

Considering the logical design of its predecessor and the tamper-evident shielding, I'm certain that this machine has been deliberately designed to prevent the owner from performing DIY upgrades and repairs.

While that is all quite annoying, at least working on the system is possible for someone with experience and determination.

Now, Apple has improved their anti-customer techniques with the 'Pentalobe' screw. It doesn't solve any problem but one: it'll keep customers from even being able to open the case.

If you're curious about Apple's evil new invention, you can read its rap sheet and view its mug shot here.
mail this link | permapage | score:9447 | -Ray, January 25, 2011

Linux dominates Windows


Linux dominates Windows -- and everything else -- on supercomputers in 2010. Microsoft's renowned engineering quality and down-to-earth pricing shows brilliantly in its capturing 1% of the top 500 supercomputer projects. Perhaps next year, utilizing all the organizational pressure they can bring to bear, they can retain 0.8%.

Formal Unix, now long dead*, controls 4.4%. Meanwhile, Linux is now installed on 91% of the remaining 95% of top systems. Add in the single BSD system and you have Unix-like systems (Unix+Linux+BSD) accounting for 95.6% of the top supercomputer projects. The remaining 3.4% of are 'mixed' systems and may also contain significant percentages of Unix and Linux.

There are many reasons for Linux' success. Among the top factors are surely these four, in no particular order:
  • Price (starting at free)
  • Quality (excellent code, Unix-based design)
  • Hardware Support (most all modern quality gear is supported)
  • Open Source (open to tinkering -- and redistributable)
Check my math on the top 500 systems here.

*Of course, counting functional Unix systems while ignoring the trademarked term, Unix is clearly not dead since Linux is one of the truest of the true Unix work-alike systems. Linux is, of course, the reason formal Unix has suffered such a precipitous decline. Many Unix users just switched flavors -- and Linux was a most appealing flavor.
mail this link | permapage | score:9381 | -Ray, June 2, 2010

FreeBSD 8.0: First Look


A look at the newest FreeBSD distribution...
The ZFS file system is included in FreeBSD 8.0 and from previous experience I've found it to work very well. However, my little server didn't really have the resources to properly experiment with it. For systems with enough RAM and disk to justify its use, I highly recommend taking a look at FreeBSD's ZFS implementation - for the snapshots feature, if nothing else. Being able to restore files without reaching for separate backup media can be a wonderful time saver.
mail this link | permapage | score:9365 | -Ray, December 8, 2009

Currency Traders Telnet Game


A new, large Currency Traders game is up. To connect enter the following command from an xterm, konsole, or other terminal/command line window:

[link removed]

It runs on port 23, just like traditional telnet. It's free to play and no software is required to play. All you need is an internet connection.

This is an old-school, no-graphics strategy game. All you need is a telnet client to play -- and every modern operating system comes with one. It's free and you can play anonymously. Just choose a name and a password and log in. If you don't know what to do, just press your H key for a Hint and a context-sensitive Tip.

This game is played in a persistent world where whatever you build, buy, or otherwise 'acquire' in the game will still be there tomorrow. Unless you make an enemy of another player, that is. PVP (player-versus-player) is always enabled here so other players can attack your deployed fortifications -- or even, heaven forbid, you.

This is a turn-based game that can be played any time of the day, night, or week. Each player is issued a certain amount of energy (turns) per day that is used to travel, trade, or play at the arcade in the several Malls. If you don't use your turns, they accumulate for as much as several months -- so there's no disadvantage to skipping a day or even a few weeks.

(Try the [read more] link if you want to see something similar, a text-based mmorpg)
mail this link | permapage | score:9358 | -Ray, January 23, 2013 (Updated: May 13, 2014)

Alternative operating systems


The ten best alternative OSes, none of which are from Microsof or Apple, nor are any based on Linux. Operating systems covered are:
  • GNU/HURD (RMS' never-quite-done free OS, predates Linux(!))
  • JNode (written in Java)
  • FreeVMS (DEC's famous VMS)
  • DexOS (tiny, console-like GUI)
  • Inferno (distributed, device-sharing)
  • KolibriOS (MenuetOS fork, tiny, written in Assembly)
  • OpenBSD (a BSD variant specializing in security, correctness)
  • AROS (Amiga Research Operating System )
  • ReactOS (Windows clone)
  • Haiku (BeOS clone)
From the article:
Big companies can grow reticent to change, slow to move and adopt new technologies. Features must be escalated through approval bodies, management and bean-counters. Hobbyist projects don't have those commercial pressures and can experiment freely.

It might seem audacious to claim that the next Windows is cooking in some part-time coder's house, but it's nothing new. Microsoft's OS empire started with the purchase of QDOS, which stood for 'Quick and Dirty Operating System'. Apple didn't create Mac OS X out of thin air, but took an open source kernel and some BSD code (grounded in academia) to get the foundations of its operating system working.
mail this link | permapage | score:9336 | -Ray, March 16, 2011

Linux network tools: iptstate and pkstat


Two small Linux tools for network stats...
iptstate displays information held in the IP Tables state table in real-time in a top-like format. Output can be sorted by any field, or any field reversed. Users can choose to have the output only print once and exit, rather than the top-like system.

Refresh rate is configurable, IPs can be resolved to names, output can be formatted, the display can be filtered, and color coding are among some of the many features.
(here are some red prints)
mail this link | permapage | score:9332 | -Ray, March 4, 2011 (Updated: April 24, 2012)

Python Client/Server Tutorial


A tiny Python tutorial...
This application can easily be coded in Python with performance levels of thousands of transactions per second on a desktop PC. Simple sample programs for the server and client sides are listed below, with discussions following
permapage | score:9323 | -Ray, June 22, 2009

System monitoring: Icinga, Nagios, and Opsview


Three open-source system monitoring software packages, two of which are derived from Nagios...
If in your work you are responsible for just one server, you will surely wonder: What is the best way to get the situation under control?

In the world there are good open source software that allow you to monitor the status of servers, services and programs.

In this article we’ll see an overview some of the softwares in this category, and in particular some related to Nagios...
mail this link | permapage | score:9320 | -Ray, March 24, 2011

Tutorial: Linux game programming with Ogre 3D


This tutorial starts at the beginning with opening a window...
This tutorial series steps you through the process of creating a 3D shoot'em'up game using the popular and powerful Ogre 3D engine. The tutorials compile on both Windows and Linux.
permapage | score:9305 | -Ray, January 1, 2010

Expect Script Examples


Expressions, if statements, for loops, and while loops examples are covered in this mini-tutorial:
This article explains the following in the expect scripting language.
  • Expressions – arithmetic operation
  • if construct in expect
  • looping constructs
permapage | score:9288 | -Ray, January 21, 2011

Linux vs. Windows: Why Linux will win


One of the oft-mentioned weaknesses of Linux, fragmentation, just happens to be one of its greatest strengths. A broad range of choices in an immature market is a good thing. Of course, choice does come at a cost. For example, there may be no standard way to do a particular task. Further, development resources will sometimes be split among two or more projects. However, these are weaknesses in the short term only.

One could similarly argue that evolution of species suffers from the same 'weakness' of fragmentation. However, in the long term, the survival and consolidation of the best traits results in an improved breed. Eventually, one of the many approaches to some desktop task will rise to dominance and show the market the right way to do it, and, at the same time, reduce the fragmentation problem.

Based on my observations, business continuity considerations are starting to place more emphasis on portable data formats and protocols. Relational databases, contrasted with the counter examples provided by Microsoft formats, are helping to raise awareness of the value of portable data.

For a private business to blithely entrust their data to proprietary formats and protocols is irresponsible at best. For a public company to do so can be looked upon as a breach of the shareholder's trust; an unnecessary liability. It's quietly overlooked now partly because of the ubiquity of the practice and partly because no Microsoft-dependent organization wants to point out a liability from which they also suffer. This situation will change with growing awareness of the problem and as the Linux-plus-free-applications option makes vendor lock-in increasingly harder to justify. The time is coming when the stock market will recognize and reward data independence among public companies.

Linux is entrenched in the server world. That provides a huge opportunity to expand into more and larger server niches. It also provides a small contributing stream of desktop users in influential places.

Major market shifts, when limited by ingrained attitudes, are generational. It takes the replacement of one generation by the next for a market to complete such a transition. Even after Linux comes to dominate in new installations, there will naturally be Windows holdouts for many years, in both homes and organizations. This diehard tenacity is not an unexpected sign of strength, but it will be interpreted as such by a certain class of industry analysts for many years.

The IT industry has an inertia that is almost unimaginable to someone who hasn't spent significant time immersed in it. Application systems built on one operating system or architecture are extremely expensive to port to an unrelated OS or architecture. While this effect does slow the uptake of Linux in business, it also prevents a sudden loss of the Linux market share. But, mostly, it masks the rise of Linux so that it is possible for much of the IT industry to simply ignore its growth. I think that this effect of the slow and gradual adoption of Linux is the main support for the ‘Windows has won the desktop’ analysts’ arguments.

Linux is free as in ‘free beer’. Yes, you can buy it -- and many do -- but when you pay money for Linux you are really buying something else: support, non-free components, and convenience, to name a few. The reality, however, is that Linux is as free as you need it to be.

Linux is also open. It can be extended, embedded, and used as needed without restrictive licenses and without fear of vendor lock-in. This characteristic of Linux can only improve Linux’s profile with each business continuity study and proprietary counter example. The significant restrictions of Linux’s license, the GNU General Public License (GPL), establish rules of redistribution, not limitations of use.

Linux is also scalable -- but just what does that mean? Scalability runs in several directions. To say an OS is scalable doesn't simply mean that it scales to very large systems. Rather, scale refers to the entire range from the very small to the very large. It refers not just to the vertical dimension but also to the horizontal, across arrays of clustered systems. On this measure, Linux truly excels. Linux powers an amazing range of systems, from tiny devices to supercomputers. Of the several operating systems that scale to very large systems, Linux seems to be the one destined to own the small end of the size spectrum.

Security may be even more important than scalability to the IT industry. Security concerns are also gaining mind share among home users as identity theft becomes more widespread. SELinux is beginning to be integrated into major Linux distributions -- which will expand the number of security-conscious IT shops that can deploy it. At the same time, Windows has spawned a healthy industry dedicated to screening out viruses and worms.

I believe that Microsoft's practice of neglecting security is one of the biggest reasons for Firefox's phenomenal success, just as it is steadily contributing to Linux’s growth.

Meanwhile, there are a few features that many Linux distributions are still missing out of the box. As each of those areas is addressed, end-user Linux adoption will increase. As this process adds to the size of the Linux installed base, the newly enlarged base will increase the value of solving other such problems, continuing to fuel the positive feedback loop. As Linux reaches ‘critical mass’, almost all of the other arguments against Linux will fall, one by one. For example, when major vendors start offering preconfigured Linux systems to home desktop users, one of the most persistent complaints against Linux, that ‘it is hard to install’, will become irrelevant. As many readers surely realize, Windows is difficult to install as well. The difference is that users generally don't have to install Windows. It comes preinstalled, and with a preconfigured 'restore' CD. The implication of this is that as Linux approaches critical mass, its period of fastest growth may still lie ahead!

Meanwhile, Microsoft's desktop network effect advantage is weakening due to cross platform software packages such as Firefox, OpenOffice, and, for programmers, gcc.

Even some game makers could conceivably abandon Windows by releasing custom Linux LiveCD versions of their games. Granted, there might need to be some embedded graphics support, but this need not be an insurmountable problem since many games only support a limited number of graphics adapters anyway.

Linux has a certain ‘coolness factor’ that appeals disproportionately to young people. Further, Linux is strongest among the technological elite, i.e., those who help and advise others, run websites, write code, and generally set technology trends. This slice of the market is more important to the future than their numbers suggest

Microsoft has, as they say in politics, ‘high negatives’. That is, a substantial percentage of people very much dislike Microsoft. These people will go to considerable efforts to avoid buying or using Microsoft products as alternative products become more visible.

Capitalism, like open source, is relentless and efficiency based. A central planner can never fully predict a market's evolution -- yet capitalism moves in lockstep with it. In much the same way, various Linux distributions will be born and die as desktop evolution relentlessly marches on. Even the current 'Linus' branch of the kernel can and will be replaced (forked) if it doesn't follow the main market closely enough. The ‘planned economy’ of Microsoft is at a disadvantage when facing the evolutionary dynamics of the laissez faire open source bazaar.

Compounding the problem for Microsoft, Linux is poised and ready to pounce upon any new, Windows-incompatible, hardware platform; perhaps IBM’s upcoming cell processor will be the next Linux success story. Linux runs on almost everything and gets quickly ported to new hardware. Linux is agile, Microsoft is not.

Microsoft's biggest remaining asset is probably the vendor lock-in ‘feature’ of Microsoft Office. Of course, that lock-in is also one of the biggest reasons not to use Microsoft Office. As free office suites achieve acceptable levels of command, feature, and file compatibility with MS Office, more and more user’s desktops will become available to Linux. Microsoft will, as always, try to leverage their current lock-in into future lock-in. But with the pace of office software development slowing as the market nears saturation, that is easier said than done. Changing Office to render a competitor incompatible will also hinder older versions of Office, creating more ill will. Also, if a competitor ever does achieve close compatibility with the current version of Office, customers will have the option of jumping to the competitor if Microsoft changes the file formats. With bad timing or a bit of bad luck, such a lock-in maneuver by Microsoft runs the risk of hastening the abandonment of Office.

Microsoft has always shrewdly leveraged their network effect and mind share advantage to maintain themselves and grow. They will continue to use this strength -- but they face many hazards. They must correctly identify the real threats early enough to fight and nullify them. Microsoft can win many battles and still lose the war. They simply can't win all the battles and yet their relentless adversary, Linux, can lose battles indefinitely and still come back to win the war. Unfortunately for Microsoft, ‘Linux’ doesn’t need to make a profit and can’t be put out of business by an upside down balance sheet.

Linux does, however, have one looming vulnerability. Microsoft could possibly kill Linux with some unwitting help from the Linux kernel team or the open source applications development community. Governments, through trademark, copyright, and patent law, wield such power over common business practices that runaway software patents -- like those now being issued in the US -- could kill off commercial Linux use and support in affected countries. For example, heavy participation in a scenario such as this one could lead to a near-death experience for Linux. This scenario, though, is best classified as a government action. Linux has already penetrated so many niches that the chances of Microsoft rooting it out via market mechanisms seem pretty slim.

And, no, Linux isn't yet ready for every desktop that Windows occupies. However, it wasn't long ago that Linux wasn't ready for many server roles either. The server situation has changed drastically just as the desktop situation is now changing. The desktop will change more slowly since it is not transparent to the user, but similar forces are pushing it inexorably forward. Each year new niches are added to the Linux desktop installed base and other, more established, niches grow. With each such increment of desktop growth, another marginal niche becomes viable. A few more years of this growth and the big market niches will gradually go from inaccessible to marginal to viable to dominated. No, Linux can’t yet replace Windows, but time is on Linux’s side.

Meanwhile, if you’re impatient, you can help to speed things up. Help a friend install Firefox or Give a Windows user a Knoppix CD to play with or install a Desktop Linux distribution on their 'old' machine and show them a software repository full of nice, friendly, and free binary applications. If you’re a programmer, find an open source project that interests you and lend a hand.
mail this link | permapage | score:9261 | -Ray, May 8, 2005 (Updated: May 13, 2005)

The best lightweight Linux


A subjective assessment of several leading small-footprint Linux distributions...
In selecting our shortlist, we've left out some contenders either because they didn't support older processors, they wouldn't install in 4GB or less of space, they simply didn't work on our hardware or they're no longer being maintained (as is the case for both RULE and U-Lite). The one exception to this is Damn Small Linux - although it has been over a year since the last release, and the homepage is as quiet as the LXF office at 9.30 on a Monday morning, this is still such a widely used and influential project that it was considered worthy of inclusion.
mail this link | permapage | score:9245 | -Ray, April 11, 2010

VirtualBox 3.2 vs. VMWare Workstation 7.1


A comparison review of the new VirtualBox 3.2 and its big (non-free) competitor, VMWare Workstation 7.1, running Ubuntu 10.04 as the host OS...
For the purposes of testing the two software packages, we used a dual quad-core 2.7Ghz AMD Opteron workstation with 16GB of RAM, a GeForce 9800 1GB DDR3 graphics card and a 500GB SATA-2 hard disk. Our OS environment was Ubuntu LTS 10.04, 64-bit edition. Internet connectivity was an Optimum Ultra 100Mb cable modem link.
permapage | score:9243 | -Ray, May 24, 2010

Currency Traders on Raspberry Pi


You can now run Currency Traders on your Raspberry Pi. It is extremely efficient and takes only about 2.2% of the memory of a 512MB RPi and less than 0.5% of the CPU. More CPU will be consumed when players are online, of course, but it should support up to a hundred or so concurrent players on a normally clocked Pi.

The installation is four quick steps, described in the readme.txt file. The entire system is a single binary, available either dynamically linked or statically linked. The static version should work on most any Pi running most any Linux. The dynamically-linked version was compiled and tested on Raspbian Wheezy and may work without library fiddling on other Pi Linuxes. [links removed]
mail this link | permapage | score:9242 | -Ray, March 3, 2013 (Updated: May 13, 2014)

Linux Find Command Examples


Fifteen examples of the find command...
Apart from the basic operation of looking for files under a directory structure, you can also perform several practical operations using find command that will make your command line journey easy.

In this article, let us review 15 practical examples of Linux find command that will be very useful to both newbies and experts.
permapage | score:9237 | -Ray, May 12, 2009
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