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HowTo: HTTP Status: 206 Partial Content and Range Requests Using Curl

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The HTTP 2xx class of status codes indicates the action requested by the client was received, and processed successfully. HTTP/1.1 200 OK is the standard response for successful HTTP requests. When you type www.cyberciti.biz in the browser you will get this status code. The HTTP/1.1 206 status code allows the client to grab only part of the resource by sending a range header. This is useful for:

* Understanding http headers and protocol.
* Troubleshooting network problems.
* Troubleshooting large download problems.
* Troubleshooting CDN and origin HTTP server problems.
* Test resuming interrupted downloads using tools like lftp or wget or telnet.
* Test and split a large file size into multiple simultaneous streams i.e. download a large file in parts. read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:9784 | -nixcraft, November 21, 2012

PDNSD HowTo: A DNS Caching Personal Server

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PDNSD is a non authoritative caching DNS server. It maintains a disk cache of the queries that your system performs and subsequent queries will be faster from the cache. It is safe enough to be used on a personal Unix/Linux system as a home Desktop or a Laptop. read more...
permapage | score:9541 | -falko, December 16, 2011

HowTo: Connect two Wireless Routers

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You can setup a wireless connection between two routers only so that it will link a wireless network to a wired network allowing you to bridge two networks with different infrastructure. You can find wireless access points products that offer either a "bridge" mode or a "repeater" mode. In this post I'm going to explain three popular open source choices that can be used for setting up a wireless bridge. read more...
permapage | score:8938 | -nixcraft, September 4, 2012

Howto: Openfiler 2.99 NAS/SAN with Corosync, Pacemaker, DRBD

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Openfiler is a Linux based NAS/SAN Application which can deliver storage over nfs/smb/iscsi and ftp. It has a web interface over that you can control these services. This howto is based on the latest version of openfiler at this date, you can download it from the official homepage www.openfiler.com. read more...
permapage | score:8690 | -falko, April 29, 2011

Squid Proxy HowTo: Listen Pandora to In Europe

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I have Pandora Internet Radio One subscription, and recently I moved to Europe for a few months as part of my work schedule. The service fully available only in the United States. How do I access Pandora one service in Europe? Can I get around it by using a proxy server installed on my own server located in USA at home or ISP data center? read more...
permapage | score:8611 | -nixcraft, November 22, 2012

Howto: Unity with Dodge Windows behavior in Ubuntu 12.04

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If you are running ubuntu 12.04(precise) and one thing you might have noticed from your unity is missing Dodge Windows behavior. Another feature users really like is the ability to be able to click a program’s icon on the Launcher and minimize/unminimize that window. Jonathan French (ojno), the developer behind this patch, has not only made this a reality, but also got this to work in conjunction with the ‘Spread Windows’ functionality. He’s even set up a PPA which contains the latest Unity and his patch to make it easier for end-users to get it. read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:8557 | -gg234, April 30, 2012

Howto: Squid reverse proxy

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This article explains how you can set up a caching reverse proxy with Squid 2.6 in front of your web server on Debian Etch. If you have a high-traffic dynamic web site that generates lots of database queries on each request, you can decrease the server load dramatically by caching your content for a few minutes or more (that depends on how often you update your content).

(here's a bit of dramatic digital art) read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:8356 | -falko, December 28, 2008 (Updated: April 24, 2012)

Tutorial: Linux Security HOWTO

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Linux security information from file permissions to network scanners, all nicely organized...
This document is a general overview of security issues that face the administrator of Linux systems. It covers general security philosophy and a number of specific examples of how to better secure your Linux system from intruders. Also included are pointers to security-related material and programs. Improvements, constructive criticism, additions and corrections are gratefully accepted.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:8263 | -Ray, December 10, 2004

Tutorial: User Mode Linux Mini Howto

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Remember when only IBM mainframes could run many concurrent operating systems concurrently? Those days are long, long gone...
UML instances ("User Mode Linux") allow you to run multiple Linux servers on one physical machine. This can be handy for many different purposes. For example, you might want to give different people root rights, but prevent them from interfering with one another. Or, you might want to have several identically configured servers, one for production, one for development, and one for testing, but without investing in multiple physical machines.

Once you have prepared your machine for running UML instances as described in the following section, adding new instances will take less than five minutes.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:8189 | -Ray, January 19, 2005

Tutorial: Chkrootkit Portsentry Howto

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A little help in scanning your system for rootkits...
This document describes how to install chkrootkit and portsentry. It should work (maybe with slight changes concerning paths etc.) on all *nix operating systems.

Chkrootkit "is a tool to locally check for signs of a rootkit" (from http://www.chkrootkit.org).

"The Sentry tools provide host-level security services for the Unix platform. PortSentry, Logcheck/LogSentry, and HostSentry protect against portscans, automate log file auditing, and detect suspicious login activity on a continuous basis"...
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:8114 | -Ray, March 19, 2004

Tutorial: The Linux virus writing and detection HOWTO

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An interesting tutorial and explanation of virus writing, techniques, and detection.
This document describes how to write parasitic file viruses infecting ELF executables on Linux/i386. Though it contains a lot of source code, no actual virus is included.

[ . . . ]

Writing a program that inserts code into another program file is one thing. Writing that program so that it can be injected itself is a very different art. Although this document shows a lot of code and technique, it is far from being a "Construction Kit For Dummies". Instead I'll try to show how things work. Translation of infecting code to assembly is left as a (non-trivial) exercise to the reader.

An astonishing number of people think that viruses require secret black magic. Here you will find simple code that patches other executables. But since regular users can't overwrite system files (we are talking about serious operating systems here) that is not even half the journey.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7961 | -Ray, March 16, 2002 (Updated: February 11, 2004)

Tutorial: PC/104 Linux Minicluster HowTo

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A tower of Linux power.
"PC/104 (IEEE P996.1) was developed to fill the need for an embedded platform, which was compliant with standardized hardware and software of the PC architecture. Mechanically quite different from the PC form factor, PC/104 modules are 3.6 X 3.8 inches in size. A self-stacking bus is implemented with pin-and-socket connectors composed of 64- and 40-contact male/female headers, which replace the card edge connectors used in standard PC hardware. Virtually anything that is available for a standard PC is available in the PC/104 form factor. PC/104 components are designed to be stacked together to create a complete embedded solution. Normally there will be a single CPU board and several peripheral boards connected by the PC/104 (ISA) system bus."
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7670 | -Ray, May 7, 2002

Tutorial: Ultimate OpenSSH / Keychain Howto

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The fundamentals, starting with installation.
All right, so maybe this isn't quite the ultimate. But this howto will show you the fundamental ways to use OpenSSH; how to generate public/private key pairs and strong passphrases, and how to use the wonderful Keychain utility to automate your SSH logins. This is exceptionally handy when you log in and out frequently, and don't want to keep entering your passphrase.
read more...
permapage | score:7669 | -Ray, March 4, 2005

Tutorial: Linux XDMCP HOWTO

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This step-by-step guide to XDMCP should help with your remote graphical applications.
This HOWTO describes how you can use the combination of X Display Manager (xdm, kdm and gdm) and XDMCP (X Display Manager Control Protocol) to provide the mechanism for an X-Terminal and a platform of cheap Remote X Apps solution. This document will be focusing on how to setup connection using XDMCP.
read more...
permapage | score:7611 | -Ray, April 9, 2001 (Updated: June 7, 2003)

Tutorial: GRUB in Debian HOWTO, Version 1.0

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A little lesson in bootloaders.
Why use GRUB instead of LILO? Well, if you're reading this HOWTO, you're likely to already have your reasons for switching. But to give a couple quick reasons, you only install GRUB in your MBR once, it doesn't need to be reinstalled each kernel change like LILO, and you can also edit the boot entries, etc. from GRUB itself without having to boot first and change the config file. These are just some of my reasons, you can find more for yourself - but how do you set it up the Debian way? This HOWTO will show you how to install the GRUB bootloader, configure it, create GRUB boot floppies and keep your GRUB configuration up to date with your latest installed kernels easily.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7457 | -Ray, October 24, 2002 (Updated: October 19, 2004)

Howto: OpenVZ on Debian

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In this HowTo I will describe how to prepare a Debian Etch server for OpenVZ. With OpenVZ you can create multiple Virtual Private Servers (VPS) on the same hardware, similar to Xen and the Linux Vserver project. OpenVZ is the open-source branch of Virtuozzo, a commercial virtualization solution used by many providers that offer virtual servers. The OpenVZ kernel patch is licensed under the GPL license, and the user-level tools are under the QPL license. read more...
permapage | score:7407 | -falko, May 25, 2008

Dual-Boot tutorial: Linux/Win98/Win95 Grub HOWTO

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Linux and mega gaming.
This HOWTO will tell you how to use the GRUB bootloader to turn your computer into a Windows + Linux dual boot machine, without affecting your current Linux installation.

[ . . . ]

Unfortunately, because Loadlin runs from under DOS, the Loadlin method of making your system dual boot requires that you have Windows installed on the first partition of your first hard drive, due to the fact that Windows believes it is the center of the universe and all your other operating systems should revolve around it. This is a problem if you already have Linux on that partition and you don't want to wipe out your system to install Windows.

This is where GNU GRUB, the GRand Unified Bootloader comes in.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7366 | -Ray, January 15, 2001 (Updated: June 5, 2005)

Tutorial: Remote Serial Console HOWTO

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Once you have a serial console, there is nothing to stop you from hiding out halfway across the county while you use it.
There is two parts to getting a serial console set up under Linux. First, you must tell Linux to redirect its console output to the serial port. Second, you must set up mgetty to start a login process on the serial port once the kernel has completed booting. Some distributions use mingetty for the video console, but mingetty has no serial port support. You will instead want to use mgetty. A third (optional) configuration is to set the hardware BIOS to redirect its POST and BIOS information to the serial port.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7341 | -Ray, April 21, 2001 (Updated: June 14, 2003)

Tutorial: Linux Plug-and-Play HOWTO

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Help in understanding plug-and-play under Linux.
While the Linux kernel has no centralized plug-and-play system, it does provide programs which various device drivers can use to do their own plug-and-play. Many drivers take advantage of this and find your PnP devices OK. The BIOS hardware of your PC likely may also do some plug-and-play work. Thus if everything works OK PnP-wise, you can use your computer without needing to know anything about plug-and-play. But if some devices which are supported by Linux don't work (because they not discovered or configured correctly by PnP) then you may need to read some of this HOWTO. You'll learn not only about PnP but also something about how communication takes place inside the computer.
read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7334 | -Ray, April 30, 2001 (Updated: November 15, 2003)

Cacti howto for CentOS 4.x

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According to Cacti's website:
Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool's data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices.
Here is a short tutorial about installing and configuring cacti on a CentOS host. It covers the basics of installation, configuration, and how to add typical graphs, using step-by-step instructions. read more...
mail this link | permapage | score:7061 | -ugob, October 12, 2006
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